Horizon Hills Parenting Program

Horizon Hills Parenting Program – Genetic evidence for fibroblast growth factor 21 as a pharmacological target for cardiometabolic outcomes and Alzheimer’s disease.

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Horizon Hills Parenting Program

Horizon Hills Parenting Program

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Systematic Review And Meta Analysis Of Genetically Informed Research: Associations Between Parent Anxiety And Offspring Internalizing Problems

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Received: 2021 March 31 / Revised: 2021 April 23 / Accepted: 2021 April 26 / Published: 2021 April 29

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As children move into adolescence, eating habits become healthier. Adolescence increases the ability to be independent and self-directed. However, parents continue to influence the eating habits of teenagers. This cross-sectional study used self-determination theory to examine how parents support food-related autonomy and competence during adolescence and how these factors relate to healthy eating motivation and food consumption at school. Additionally, the effect of healthy food availability at home on school food consumption in pre-adolescent children was examined. A total of 142 Dutch pre-adolescents (mean age 12.18) and 81 fathers completed the questionnaires. The results show that adolescents perceive themselves to have less self-efficacy in terms of food-related autonomy and healthy eating compared to their parents’ perceptions. Path analysis was conducted to test the hypothesized model. Although parental support was positively associated with food-related self-efficacy, food-related self-efficacy was associated with less healthy food intake at school. On the other hand, healthy eating competence indirectly affects preadolescents’ healthy eating attitudes and healthy eating motivation. Finally, availability of healthy foods at home was positively associated with preadolescents’ consumption of healthy foods outside the home. The findings of the study contribute to the understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence eating habits during the key life period of early adolescence. The results may be useful for interventions to help adolescents make healthier food choices on their own.

Healthy eating habits during childhood and adolescence are important for youth development and long-term health. However, eating habits from childhood to adolescence seem to be unhealthy. As children enter adolescence, consumption of unhealthy foods, including sugar-sweetened beverages, increases, while consumption of healthy foods, including fruits and vegetables, decreases [1, 2, 3]. This is a concern as adolescents’ eating habits progress into adulthood [4, 5]. The deterioration of nutritional quality can be explained by the increasing independence that characterizes the developmental transition from childhood to adolescence [3]. In particular, adolescent children (10–14 years) are more likely than younger children to make food-related decisions, such as when and where to eat [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. The school environment is particularly recognized as an important environment for self-feeding, as approximately one-third (35%) of daily food consumption is at school [9]. Understanding the individual and environmental factors that influence eating habits during this critical period of life is important to develop effective approaches to promote healthy eating [10].

According to self-determination theory (SDT), autonomy, competence, and supportive parenting practices are important factors in learning and maintaining healthy eating habits [11, 12]. According to SDT, making healthy food choices requires feeling that you have a choice (eg, autonomy) and a sense of personal efficacy (eg, competence). In addition to the desire to connect with significant people, the satisfaction of these psychological needs increases internal motivation to behave in a certain way [13]. Furthermore, SDT emphasizes the central role of parents in supporting their children’s autonomy and competence needs [ 11 , 12 ]. Pre-adolescent support can be seen in part, for example, in the provision of food at home [14]. SDT has been widely applied as a theoretical framework for the study of factors influencing eating behavior [15, 16]. Most studies of eating behavior in the context of SDT have been conducted in adults (e.g. [17] (cross-sectional), [18, 19] (longitudinal)) and adolescents (e.g. [20] (cross-sectional)). (21) (longitudinal)). However, adolescence between 10 and 14 is a period of life transition with important developmental, social, and environmental changes that can influence behavior. Therefore, this study examines how food-related autonomy, competence, and supportive parenting practices relate to healthy eating motivation and food choices in adolescence.

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Adolescents aged 10-13 often eat independently [8]. In the Netherlands, primary school students bring their own morning snacks and drinks to school. Schools may have a food policy, for example, regarding the food and drink that children bring [23]. Most schools have a rotating schedule, which means children stay at school to eat packed lunches during recess. A typical lunch for Dutch primary school children consists of a sandwich with a sweet or savory filling and a drink [24]. A morning snack can be anything like fruit, cookies, bread or sweets. Intervention studies have tried to improve the healthiness of this snack choice in elementary schools [25].

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Despite increasing opportunities to make independent food choices, parents, through their parenting practices, continue to influence adolescent eating habits [26]. Parenting practices have been suggested to be dependent on parents’ perceptions of adolescent autonomy and food-related competence. However, parental perceptions may not correspond to preadolescent self-perceptions. For example, if teenagers believe they are competent enough to make healthy food choices, but their parents disagree, parents may enforce strict dietary rules. Therefore, before puberty, children may realize that they have little autonomy when it comes to food, which can lead to unhealthy food choices. Various previous studies have shown that adolescents’ and parents’ reports of different parenting and eating behaviors do not correlate with each other, suggesting that adolescents and parents perceive the behaviors differently, for example, [28, 29]. For example, adolescent behaviors related to fruit or vegetables, such as cutting vegetables or fruit, were rated higher among 10- to 12-year-old adolescents than their parents [ 30 ]. Another study found that adolescents were more likely to cook or help with dinner than their parents reported. This study uses a dynamic approach to explore adolescent and parent perceptions of food-related autonomy and competence.

The primary objective of this study was to examine how food-related self-efficacy and parenting practices relate to adolescent motivation to eat healthy and use of healthy food at school. See picture 1. This includes examining the relative impact of healthy food availability at home on adolescent healthy eating at school. In particular, the following research questions will be answered:

Adolescents have a strong need for autonomy—the ability to think, feel, and act independently [32]. This need for autonomy also applies to adolescent eating behavior, as adolescents value the ability to make their own food choices. Food-related autonomy develops mainly in the home environment and involves cooperation between parents and adolescents [35]. In general, food-related autonomy is seen as the ability to be relatively independent about which foods you choose to consume.

It is a central concept in Self-Determination Theory (SDT), which is the basis for explaining motivation and behavior. In particular, autonomy plays a key role in motivation and participation in behavior [13]. Thus, adolescents with a high sense of food autonomy may be more likely to choose healthy foods.

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Previous research using the SDT framework to explain adolescent eating behavior has been largely cross-sectional and focused on self-motivation, which refers to motivation based on personal interest or value [ 37 ]. According to SDT, self-motivation to eat healthy is associated with higher consumption of healthy foods among adolescents in cross-sectional studies [38, 39, 40, 41, 42] and longitudinal studies [43]. Also, a recent study showed that teenagers are less likely to eat fruits and vegetables when their parents tell them to.

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